Source code for qiskit_aer.quantum_info.states.aer_densitymatrix

# This code is part of Qiskit.
#
# (C) Copyright IBM 2017, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023.
#
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
#
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

"""
DensityMatrix quantum state class.
"""
import copy
import numpy as np

from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, Instruction
from qiskit.exceptions import QiskitError
from qiskit.quantum_info.states import DensityMatrix
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.predicates import is_hermitian_matrix

from qiskit_aer import AerSimulator
from .aer_statevector import AerStatevector
from .aer_state import AerState
from ...backends.aerbackend import AerError
from ...backends.backend_utils import BASIS_GATES


[docs]class AerDensityMatrix(DensityMatrix): """AerDensityMatrix class This class inherits :class:`DensityMatrix`. """ def __init__(self, data, dims=None, **configs): """ Args: data (np.array or list or Statevector or AerStatevector or DensityMatrix or AerDensityMatrix or QuantumCircuit or qiskit.circuit.Instruction): Data from which the densitymatrix can be constructed. This can be either a complex vector, another densitymatrix or statevector or a ``QuantumCircuit`` or ``Instruction`` (``Operator`` is not supported in the current implementation). If the data is a circuit or instruction, the densitymatrix is constructed by assuming that all qubits are initialized to the zero state. dims (int or tuple or list): Optional. The subsystem dimension of the state (See additional information). configs (kwargs): configurations of :class:`AerDensityMatrix`. `_aer_state` and `method` are valid. Raises: AerError: if input data is not valid. Additional Information: The ``dims`` kwarg is used to ``AerDensityMatrix`` constructor. """ if "_aer_state" in configs: self._aer_state = configs.pop("_aer_state") else: if "method" not in configs: configs["method"] = "density_matrix" elif configs["method"] != "density_matrix": method = configs["method"] raise AerError(f"Method {method} is not supported") if isinstance(data, (QuantumCircuit, Instruction)): data, aer_state = AerDensityMatrix._from_instruction(data, None, configs) elif isinstance(data, list): data = self._from_1d_array(np.array(data, dtype=complex)) data, aer_state = AerDensityMatrix._from_ndarray(data, configs) elif isinstance(data, np.ndarray): data = self._from_1d_array(data) data, aer_state = AerDensityMatrix._from_ndarray(data, configs) elif isinstance(data, AerDensityMatrix): aer_state = data._aer_state if dims is None: dims = data._op_shape._dims_l data = data._data.copy() elif isinstance(data, DensityMatrix): data, aer_state = AerDensityMatrix._from_ndarray( np.array(data.data, dtype=complex), configs ) elif hasattr(data, "to_operator"): # If the data object has a 'to_operator' attribute this is given # higher preference than the 'to_matrix' method for initializing # an Operator object. op = data.to_operator() data, aer_state = AerDensityMatrix._from_ndarray(op.data, configs) if dims is None: dims = op.output_dims() elif hasattr(data, "to_matrix"): # If no 'to_operator' attribute exists we next look for a # 'to_matrix' attribute to a matrix that will be cast into # a complex numpy matrix. data, aer_state = AerDensityMatrix._from_ndarray( np.asarray(data.to_matrix(), dtype=complex), configs ) else: raise AerError(f"Input data is not supported: type={data.__class__}, data={data}") self._aer_state = aer_state super().__init__(data, dims=dims) self._result = None self._configs = configs
[docs] def seed(self, value=None): """Set the seed for the quantum state RNG.""" if value is None or isinstance(value, int): self._aer_state.set_seed(value) else: raise AerError(f"This seed is not supported: type={value.__class__}, value={value}")
def _last_result(self): if self._result is None: self._result = self._aer_state.last_result() return self._result
[docs] def metadata(self): """Return result metadata of an operation that executed lastly.""" if self._last_result() is None: raise AerError("AerState was not used and metdata does not exist.") return self._last_result()["metadata"]
def __copy__(self): return copy.deepcopy(self) def __deepcopy__(self, _memo=None): ret = AerDensityMatrix(self._data.copy(), **self._configs) ret._op_shape = copy.deepcopy(self._op_shape) ret._rng_generator = copy.deepcopy(self._rng_generator) return ret
[docs] def conjugate(self): return AerDensityMatrix(np.conj(self._data), dims=self.dims())
[docs] def tensor(self, other): """Return the tensor product state self ⊗ other. Args: other (AerDensityMatrix): a quantum state object. Returns: AerDensityMatrix: the tensor product operator self ⊗ other. Raises: QiskitError: if other is not a quantum state. """ if not isinstance(other, AerDensityMatrix): other = AerDensityMatrix(other) ret = copy.copy(self) ret._data = np.kron(self._data, other._data) ret._op_shape = self._op_shape.tensor(other._op_shape) return ret
[docs] def expand(self, other): """Return the tensor product state other ⊗ self. Args: other (AerDensityMatrix): a quantum state object. Returns: AerDensityMatrix: the tensor product state other ⊗ self. Raises: QiskitError: if other is not a quantum state. """ if not isinstance(other, AerDensityMatrix): other = AerDensityMatrix(other) ret = copy.copy(self) ret._data = np.kron(other._data, self._data) ret._op_shape = self._op_shape.expand(other._op_shape) return ret
def _add(self, other): """Return the linear combination self + other. Args: other (AerDensityMatrix): a quantum state object. Returns: AerDensityMatrix: the linear combination self + other. Raises: QiskitError: if other is not a quantum state, or has incompatible dimensions. """ if not isinstance(other, AerDensityMatrix): other = AerDensityMatrix(other) self._op_shape._validate_add(other._op_shape) ret = copy.copy(self) ret._data = self.data + other.data return ret
[docs] def sample_memory(self, shots, qargs=None): if qargs is None: qubits = np.arange(self._aer_state.num_qubits) else: qubits = np.array(qargs) self._aer_state.close() self._aer_state.renew() self._aer_state.initialize(self._data, copy=False) samples = self._aer_state.sample_memory(qubits, shots) self._data = self._aer_state.move_to_ndarray() return samples
@staticmethod def _from_1d_array(data): # Convert statevector into a density matrix ndim = data.ndim shape = data.shape if ndim == 2 and shape[0] == shape[1]: pass # We good elif ndim == 1: data = np.outer(data, np.conj(data)) elif ndim == 2 and shape[1] == 1: data = np.reshape(data, shape[0]) else: raise QiskitError("Invalid AerDensityMatrix input: not a square matrix.") return data @staticmethod def _from_ndarray(init_data, configs): aer_state = AerState(method="density_matrix") options = AerSimulator._default_options() for config_key, config_value in configs.items(): if options.get(config_key): aer_state.configure(config_key, config_value) if len(init_data) == 0: raise AerError("initial data must be larger than 0") num_qubits = int(np.log2(len(init_data))) aer_state.allocate_qubits(num_qubits) aer_state.initialize(data=init_data) return aer_state.move_to_ndarray(), aer_state
[docs] @classmethod def from_instruction(cls, instruction): return AerDensityMatrix(instruction)
@staticmethod def _from_instruction(inst, init_data, configs): aer_state = AerState(method="density_matrix") for config_key, config_value in configs.items(): aer_state.configure(config_key, config_value) basis_gates = BASIS_GATES["density_matrix"] aer_state.allocate_qubits(inst.num_qubits) num_qubits = inst.num_qubits if init_data is not None: aer_state.initialize(data=init_data, copy=True) else: aer_state.initialize() if isinstance(inst, QuantumCircuit) and inst.global_phase != 0: aer_state.apply_global_phase(inst.global_phase) if isinstance(inst, QuantumCircuit): AerStatevector._aer_evolve_circuit(aer_state, inst, range(num_qubits), basis_gates) else: AerStatevector._aer_evolve_instruction(aer_state, inst, range(num_qubits), basis_gates) return aer_state.move_to_ndarray(), aer_state
[docs] def reset(self, qargs=None): # Normally, DensityMatrix.reset returns DensityMatrix, which should # be converted to AerDensityMatrix if necessary. density_matrix = super().reset(qargs=qargs) if isinstance(density_matrix, DensityMatrix): density_matrix = AerDensityMatrix(density_matrix) return density_matrix
[docs] @classmethod def from_label(cls, label): return AerDensityMatrix(AerStatevector.from_label(label))
[docs] @staticmethod def from_int(i, dims): size = np.prod(dims) state = np.zeros((size, size), dtype=complex) state[i, i] = 1.0 return AerDensityMatrix(state, dims=dims)
[docs] def to_statevector(self, atol=None, rtol=None): """Return a statevector from a pure density matrix. Args: atol (float): Absolute tolerance for checking operation validity. rtol (float): Relative tolerance for checking operation validity. Returns: AerStatevector: The pure density matrix's corresponding statevector. Corresponds to the eigenvector of the only non-zero eigenvalue. Raises: QiskitError: if the state is not pure. """ if atol is None: atol = self.atol if rtol is None: rtol = self.rtol if not is_hermitian_matrix(self.data, atol=atol, rtol=rtol): raise QiskitError("Not a valid density matrix (non-hermitian).") evals, evecs = np.linalg.eig(self.data) nonzero_evals = evals[abs(evals) > atol] if len(nonzero_evals) != 1 or not np.isclose(nonzero_evals[0], 1, atol=atol, rtol=rtol): raise QiskitError("Density matrix is not a pure state") psi = evecs[:, np.argmax(evals)] # eigenvectors returned in columns. return AerStatevector(psi)